1 Towards the end of the survey, the BIDR was administered in order to identify how much the participants may have distorted their answers. The behavioural intention is a conscious decision to engage in certain behaviours and this is mediated by one’s attitude towards the behaviour and subjective norms (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Another theoretical model is the ‘file-drawer model’ and suggests that attitudes are mental files stored in memory, which one consults when performing an evaluation of an attitude object (Wilson, Lisle & Kraft, 1990). Farrall, S., & McNeill F. (2010). (Ed.). Considering that the victims were of a different gender in each vignette, each participant responded to both questionnaires twice. Sex offenders represent a heterogeneous population, with offense patterns that are very diverse in nature. Otherwise should we just use a success test in the experimental studies? Although the results are indicative of the members of the general population, professionals are part of the general population just as any individual and they are too predisposed to showing negative attitudes towards the victims to sexual offences. Sex offender residence restrictions: Unintended consequences and community reentry. 6. Nonetheless, this study attempts at investig… (2012). Directions? No other participants received incentives. The relationship between attitudes and behaviour is complex and not always certain. Other demographic data (e.g. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 79-85. ! Press coverage as a heuristic guide for social decision-making about sexual offenders. Leicester: BPS. name and contact details) will not be collected as part of this study. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 227-235. The treatment of sex offenders: Risk management and good lives. The ‘tripartite model’ (Allport, 1935) suggests that attitudes are comprised of affective, behavioural and cognitive responses. In the future, researchers could conduct studies to identify the link between attitudes towards sex offenders and their victims among university students. Craig, L. A. How law enforcement, mental health (forensic and nonforensic), and the general public stereotype sex offenders. Psychology Press. Can we use psycological scales such as motivation or atttitude scales in the experimental studies in the inverstigations of the effects of methods? Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Overall, the scale showed a great internal consistency (α = .92), as well as for each factor: ‘sentencing and management’ (α = .93), ‘stereotype endorsement’ (α = .85) and ‘risk perception’ (α = .81). Attitudes towards sex offenders and the influence of offence type: A comparison of staff working in a forensic setting and students. Attitudes as temporary constructions. Church, Wakeman, Miller, Clements & Sun, 2008; Hogue, 1993; Harper & Hogue, 2014b). Stigmatized among the stigmatized: Sex offenders in Canadian penitentiaries. He sat down next to her and as soon as the plane took off he unbuckled her seat belt and began to touch her sexually. Dictionary of psychological testing, assessment and treatment. 9 Thank you! Beech, A. R., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. E. (2005). possible extraneous variables uncontrolled for). Any use made of information contained in this thesis/dissertation must be in accordance with that legislation and must be properly acknowledged. 5 I also thought of some MMPI-2 subscales, however, I have come to know that they cannot be applied apart from the original instrument. Schalast, N., Redies, M., Collins, M., Stacey, J., & Howells, K. (2008). The ATS-21 is a shortened and revised version of the ATS (Hogue, 1993). If you take part, but you wish to have your data withdrawn please contact the researcher with your participant number and your data will then not be used. Where can I find studies on psychopathology and left-handedness, specifically schizophrenia and PTSD? Has anyone dealt with this topic and done similar research? Moreover, using a UK university sample, Harper (2012) did find that undergraduate psychology students showed significantly more negative and punitive attitudes towards sex offenders and he argued that “undergraduate psychology degrees do not go far enough to address some of the stigmatised views” (pp.1). Hogue, T. E. (2015, July). ), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. Therefore, a stronger replication with a more diverse sample and perhaps more characteristics could potentially alter the present results. For the purpose of this study it is not essential to evaluate any other type of sexual offences. Doctoral dissertation submitted at University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Previous research has had mixed findings when they investigated the effect on the gender of the participant on the attitudes towards sex offenders. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 11(2), 197-207. This chapter begins to place pole classes in a wider context, that of what Feona Attwood (2009) and others have called ‘the mainstreaming of sex’; Brian McNair (2002) argues that ‘striptease culture’ now pervades all aspects of Western society and culture from television and films, to art and music, health education and fashion. I am looking for this book for my research. All participants were current students (at the time of this experiment) reading either a forensic, clinical or counselling degree and were varied across the three years of study. This is perhaps one solution in making sure the collected data is valid and it represents the actual attitudes of the sample. Due to its purpose, the current research was limited in its accessibility to well-educated older practitioners. Moreover, overly positive attitudes can be viewed as a perceived normalisation of cognitive distortions and an acceptance of the offending behaviour (Hall & Hirschman, 1991) which arguably is inversely correlated with desistance. Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used to identify the difference in attitudes towards sex offenders as measured by the ATS-21 when mediated by the gender of the victim. Willmot (2013) also points out to the importance of a good therapeutic alliance (TA) between the therapist and the sex offender. Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Everything you say/report is confidential unless you tell us something that indicates that you or someone else is at risk of harm. The research follows a repeated-measures design where each participant covered both male offender – male victim and male offender – female victim conditions. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. There are no foreseen risks in taking part in this study and even though the study is based on a sensitive topic (sexual assault), this should not be anything you have never been exposed to through media, television or other news sources. This evaluation can be in favour or disfavour towards an attitude object (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Nature and operation of attitudes. You have received this invitation because you are a current student at the university studying Clinical, Counselling or Forensic Psychology. Process variables in the treatment of sexual offenders: A review of the relevant literature. The independent variables in this study are the gender (male or female) of the victim and the gender of the participant (male or female). The literature on attitudes is vast and mixed in their theoretical approaches (Albarracin, Johnson, Zanna & Kumkale, 2005; Oskamp & Schultz, 2005; Vogel & Wanke, 2016). These findings partially support the hypothesis that the attitudes will be more negative when the victim is a female and more positive when the victim is a male. The participants are asked to rate the extent to which they agree or disagree with each statement on a 6-point Likert scale and the overall possible score can range from 0 to 100, where high score indicates negative attitudes (i.e. For the purpose of this experiment, two short vignettes were produced both describing an act of sudden sexual assault against a victim (male and female) by a male perpetrator. Thus, the criminogenic needs approach was criticised by empirical evidence suggesting that the identification of risk factors and subsequent treatment solely to reduce the level of risk may not necessarily achieve desistance (Ward, Mann & Gannon, 2007). Despite the promising findings, this research has found no other statistically significant (p > .05) differences in attitudes. Student attitudes (dependent variable) are measured in both conditions. What happens to therapists who work with sex offenders?. The results of both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the majority of the subscales have violated the assumptions of normality (see Appendix 11). Upon arrival, she reported the incident to the flight attendants and the police. Psychology, Crime & Law, 23(2), 118-134. Correctional officers: How do they perceive sex offenders?. Contextualizing the policy and pragmatics of reintegrating sex offenders. I am a PhD student and social work intern-soon-to-be clinician working with sex offenders in a private practice outpatient setting (adults, adults with ID, and adolescents). The gender of the victim is also manipulated in order to measure its effect on the dependent variable (attitudes). Ward, T., Mann, R. E., & Gannon, T. A. Nevertheless, because some individuals tend to overreport or underreport maltreatment, I wanna know if there's any scale who can assess how far the individual may be, purposely, manipulating the data in order to look more/less victimized than actually was. Addressing the disparity between community view, public policy, and treatment effectiveness for sex offenders. The participants were randomly assigned to read the male – female vignette first or the male – male vignette first. AAT 3129997). The construction of social judgments, 10, 37-65. However, for future research this could be an interesting and rationalised approach to the attitudes towards sex offenders when investigating the impact of the victim’s gender. There is a general aspiration for the treatment outcomes of both the sex offender and his/her victim to be fruitful. If you agree to take part, you will be asked to complete an online task. The negative evaluations and stereotypes are generally well known and practised in a society (Crocker et al., 1998; Steele, 1997), thus the stigmatised individual is faced with stereotypes, labelling and discriminations across most social interactions and is often excluded and avoided (Major & Eccleston, 2004). Abstract . Criminal justice and Behavior, 17(1), 19-52. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735-755. The RNR focuses on the weaknesses of the offender (i.e. Similar to the PSO, the ATS-21 constitutes of statements (e.g. If anyone knows of a way to obtain it for free download please let me know. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that the media has negatively shaped and influenced the attitudes towards sex offenders. Attitudes Toward Sexual Offenders; what impact on clinical practice. Psychology undergraduate attitudes towards male sex offenders: The impact of the victim’s gender. If stigma endangers the TA connection, several other issues can arise, such as the loss of motivation to engage with the treatment programme (McMurran, 2003). Data from the most recent 2013/2014 Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) shows that 19.9% of women and 3.6% of men, aged between 16-59 were victims once or more of sexual assault (ONS, 2015). Ward, T., Yates, P. M., & Willis, G. M. (2012). Ideas? Harper & Hogue (2017) suggest that the emotionality presented in the media may have a great impact on the way the public shapes their attitudes towards sex offenders.