Inoculation of corn (Zea mays) with this strain increased the number of leaves, shoot and root length, and increased dry weight per gram of fresh weight by 54% (Raza and Faisal, 2013). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 64(Pt 10):3427-33. 2010), doctors’ cell phones (Tambekar et al. Bioresource Technology 126:233-7. Whole genome sequences and annotation of Micrococcus luteus SUBG006, a novel phytopathogen of mango. Germany’s Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has placed M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 in “Risk Group 1” (DSMZ, 2015). The colony morphology of being yellow, shiny and smooth line up perfectly with M. luteus (Public Health England). 1995, 2002, 2006; Votyakova et al. 2003). Ecotoxicology 14:14-299. The negative oxidase result conflicts with M. luteus (Public Health England). The extent of exposure to M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 will depend on the quantity released, and on its survival, persistence and dispersal in the receiving environment. International Journal of Food Microbiology 69(1–2):25-36. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 383(1):16-22. M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is susceptible to 0.03% chlorine dioxide, 7.5% hydrogen peroxide or 2.25% peracetic acid, causing >5 log10 reduction in cell viability after 30 seconds exposure (Martin et al. 2006; Liebl et al. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 58:10-99. Skin treatment compositions. This viable but non-culturable state ends when favourable conditions trigger a “revival factor or resuscitation promoting factor” coded by the gene rpf (Mukamolova et al. The API 20 E test strip results revealed nothing about what the isolate uses as an electron acceptor because every result was negative, and that it likely only uses glucose as an energy and carbon source and oxygen as its electron acceptor. No other international regulatory decisions were found regarding M. luteusFootnote 4 . Mortensen N and Kocur M. 1967. The menaquinone composition of M. luteus is mainly MK-8 with some MK-8(H2) and MK-7, whereas that of M. lylae is mainly MK-8(H2), with small amounts of MK-7(H2) and MK-9(H2) (Stackebrandt et al. Testing conducted by Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Ecotoxicology and Wildlife Health Division. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57(1):66-9. Microbial Ecology 53(4):571-8. 1990). Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German collection of microorganisms and cell cultures BacDive. Nosocomial hazards of doctor's mobile phones in hospitals. Taxonomic dissection of the genus Micrococcus: Kocuria gen. nov., Nesterenkonia gen. nov., Kytococcus gen. nov., Dermacoccus gen. nov., and Micrococcus Cohn 1872 gen. emend. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 21(3):956-60. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis . Micrococcus and Stomatococcus spp. There are no reports in the publicly available literature clearly implicating M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 in adverse effects on humans. “Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Iranian Medicinal-Plants against Micrococcus Luteus, Serratia Marcescens, Klebsiella Pneumoniae and Bordetella Bronchoseptica.”. Investigations on bacteria as a potential biological control agent of summer chafer, Amphimallon solstitiale L. (coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). 2010). As a result, only a few of the reported cases would now be accepted as Micrococcus species. Diversity of culturable bacteria in the mucus of the red sea coral Fungia scutaria. Faison BD, Cancel CA, Lewis SN, Adler HI. 1999. Bacillus megaterium fermented sugars but didn't grow in the anaerobic area of the butt. 2001). Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus. Ramos M, Hachem R, Youssef S, Fang X, Jiang Y, Raad I. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51(5):963-8. Isolation of naphthalene-degrading bacteria from tropical marine sediments. 2004). The Journal of Hospital Infection 19(3):191-200. Seifert H, Kaltheuner M, Perdreau-Remington F. 1995. a skin treatment composition for odour control and biocontrol of bacterial skin disorders (Tagg et al. Blood 101(6):2388-92. Austin B, Calomiris JJ, Walker JD, Colwell RR. Water Science Technology 47:303-8. a Data compiled from Tang and Gillevet, 2003, Multiple antibiotic resistance and heavy metals resistance, Streptomycin resistance, cholesterol degradation, Nalidixic acid resistance, degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos, Degradation of malathion and chlorpyrifos, Resistance to kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, tobramycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol, resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol, Transposases (Wagenknecht et al. 2008. Microbiological Research 167(6):372-80. soil (Sims et al. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 88(3–4):251-3. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60(8):1897-903. Wieser et al. Stackebrandt E, Koch C, Gvozdiak O, Schumann P. 1995. In the unlikely event of infection, M. luteus is susceptible to most antibiotics. The fish experimentally injected with the same M. luteus strain showed 54% mortality (Austin and Stoble, 1992). Environment and Climate Change Canada Research scientists performed a springtail reproduction test using M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 on the common soil invertebrate Folsomia candida , according to standardized test method EPS 1/RM/44/ (Environment Canada, 2014). StrainInfo introduces electronic passports for microorganisms. Results: Regarding the gram stain test, my isolate was gram variable, I ensured that the strain was fresh so that the age of the culture was the same throughout the test. The arrow indicates the DSL strain. Xylander WER and Nevermann L. 1990. Postreplication DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated Micrococcus luteus. Lampert Y, Kelman D, Dubinsky Z, Nitzan Y, Hill RT. M. luteus can form non-endospore dormant structures (Kaprelyants and Kell, 1993; Kaprelyants et al. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 7(10):1255-62. It has properties that make it of potential use in bioremediation, biodegradation, wastewater treatment, drain cleaning and degreasing, growth promotion of plants and fish, skin treatment, and the production of enzymes and antibiotics. M. luteus appears to be a normal inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, yet no adverse effects of M. luteus on aquatic invertebrates have been reported in the literature. Cohn, F. 1872. Austin, B. and M. Stobie, 1992. 2008). Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy 15(6):424-5. PHAC. Creamy, yellow-pigmented colonies are typical, while cream, white or unpigmented strains have also been isolated (Kloos et al. orthodontic buccal tubes (Purmal et al. Tagg JR, Chilcott CN, Alqumber MAA. M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 was nominated to the DSL for use in combination with enzymes and other micro-organisms in wastewater drains, sewers, grease traps, septic systems and wastewater treatment facilities. 2001); 28 cases of bacteremia after medication with central venous catheters were identified in a seven-year survey from 2002 to 2008 (Hirata et al. In the event that the organism enters municipal drinking water treatment systems through release from potential uses, the water treatment process, which includes coagulation, flocculation, ozonation, filtration and chlorination, is expected to effectively eliminate these micro-organisms from drinking water. Most plasmids are associated with degradation of chemicals in the environment and resistance to chemicals, heavy metals and antibiotics. three cases of peritionitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, one of which was polymicrobial with Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species and non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria (Kao et al. 2009. M. luteus is susceptible to the antimicrobial defenses of invertebrate species including Corals, millipedes and centipedes. 2010). 2006b. They can even survive in conditions that have very little of even no oxygen, using glycolysis and alternative electron acceptors to create ATP. A survey on bacteria inhabiting the sea surface microlayer of coastal ecosystems. M. luteus is an obligate aerobe (Medical Laboratories). Balashanmugam P and Kalaichelvan PT. 2008; Ordonez et al. 1995); one case of central venous catheter-related bacteremia in a 48 year old female, kidney patient after hemodialysis (Peces et al. Micrococcus species also demonstrate a much slower growth and more convex colony shape than do Staphylococcus species (Kloos et al. an organism can break down gelatin, the areas where the organism has Isolation and characterization of a novel nitrobenzene-degrading bacterium with high salinity tolerance: Micrococcus luteus. Fischer-Colbrie G, Matama T, Heumann S, Martinkova L, Cavaco Paulo A, Guebitz G. 2007. There is no evidence from the scientific literature to suggest that M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is likely to have adverse effects on human health. Based on the absence of consumer or commercial activity in Canada according to the section 71 notice, the overall environmental exposure estimation for M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 is low. Wagenknecht M, Dib JR, Thurmer A, Daniel R, Farias ME, Meinhardt F. 2010. Discussion: When looking at all of the results for my isolate, they are not all consistent with Micrococcus luteus. It shows that 8 of the 10 Micrococcus species, including Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, the type species, cluster most closely while M. lactis and M. terreus cluster more closely with Zhihengliuella and Arthrobacter speces. The upper limits of growth for M. luteus for temperature, pH and salinity are 45°C, pH 10 and 10% NaCl, respectively. 1997). The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 117(02):122-5. Later, Myxococcus xanthus was also shown to be one of the predators of M. luteus (Hillesland et al. 2010). Methods: To start isolating the bacterium, I used a sterile swab wet with deionized water provided by the lab to pick up bacteria from the shower drain. Kooken JM, Fox KF, Fox A. 2002. A search of the public domain (MSDS, literature and patents) revealed the following consumer, commercial and industrial applications for other strains of M. luteus. Based on the information available, it is concluded that M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 does not meet the criteria under paragraph 64(a) or (b) of CEPA as it is not entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that have or may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment or its biological diversity or that constitute or may constitute a danger to the environment on which life depends. 2015. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 4(2): 167-174. Panneerselvam P, Rather BA, Ravi Sankar Reddy D, Ramesh Kumar N. 2009. Herrmann P and Klein P. 1999. Kocur M, Kloos W, Schleifer K. 2006. However, in some mixed cultures, M. luteus is quickly outcompeted and becomes undetectable because of antagonism by other micro-organisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus (Malic et al. Rakhashiya PM, Patel PP, Thaker VS. 2016. M. luteus biofilms formed on stainless steel surfaces are more sensitive to disinfecting agents hydrogen peroxide and peroxyacetic acid than the biofilms formed by other bacteria, such as Listeria innocua, Pseudomonas putida and Staphylococcus hominis (Królasik et al. Degradation potential of Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens against some commonly used dyes. a medieval wall painting in a chapel (Wieser et al. 1993). Andreopoulos T, Papanikolaou G, Politou M, Konstantopoulos K, Stefanou J, Loukopoulos D. 2000. Utilization of phthalate esters by Micrococcus. 2000). Journal of Clinical Microbiology 21(3):474-. Food Microbiology 24(1):52-8. Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) Cohn (ATCC® 4698™). vulgaris, and Proteus mirabilis from other enterics. Under the microscope they are round cells. Indirect exposure to M. luteus strain ATCC 4698 could occur in the vicinity of the treated sites, but is not expected to be greater than direct exposure during the product application.
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