aristocracy definition ap world history

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For those reasons, the term aristocracy often is used to mean the ruling upper layer of a stratified group. In an aristocracy, a small group of social elites control the government of a nation. [1], The concept evolved in Ancient Greece, whereby a council of leading citizens was commonly empowered and contrasted with representative democracy, in which a council of citizens was appointed as the "senate" of a city state or other political unit. The British aristocracy is littered with stories of unmitigated spendthrifts who seem bent on self-destruction. When aristocrats grow too powerful, it can be difficult for even a strong monarch to combat that power. Stone, Lawrence. Aristocrats, or the ruling elites, tend to enjoy both social and economic prestige as well as political power. However, at the beginning of the early modern period, what distinguished the lower nobility—that is, simple gentlemen—from mere commoners was not necessarily a matter of clear legal distinctions. Nevertheless, many monarchs and princes gradually tried to control access to noble status more tightly. Some European nations, like France, have totally dismantled their monarchy and aristocracy in favor of democratic government. Encyclopedia.com. Modern students usually associate aristocrats with a monarchy, or a government ruled by a single person. The Gentry in England and Wales 1500–1700. The European Nobilities in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. However, in the Spanish Habsburg Monarchy, the state's fiscal crisis in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led to a large-scale alienation of royal rights of jurisdiction and taxation to noble magnates and rich financiers—who were subsequently often ennobled and integrated into the ancient nobility—that has been described as a process of refeudalization. The British monarchy retains ceremonial power. allyu: Definition. Miscellaneous Terms. The imperial knights (, The existence of this stratum of free smallholders gave a certain reality to the Lombard, and indeed Frankish, constitutional tradition that based royal power on the nation of free warriors at arms. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? With a benevolent aristocracy, the people are well cared for and prosperous; however, with a greedy aristocracy in power, the people may lose their homes and property, or their lives. In France a royal ordinance stated in 1579 that men of non-noble origin who bought noble fiefs should in future remain members of the Third Estate; the silent elevation to the status of nobleman was thereby declared illegal. Heal, Felicity, and Clive Holmes. She has taught college History and Government courses. In the sixteenth century both magnates and simple gentlemen tended to live in castles or manor houses in the country, outside the towns and cities, in most European countries. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. [citation needed], In modern times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group, the aristocratic class, and has since been contrasted with democracy. The French Revolution in the 1790s forced many aristocrats into exile, relieving them of their lands and power. AP world history - Ways of the World book by Strayer. [10][11], This article is about the form of government. Each of these aristocrats had their own administrative and military staff, and in 771 B.C.E. The term was first used by such ancient Greeks as Aristotle and Plato, who used it to describe a system where only the best of the citizens, chosen through a careful process of selection, would become rulers, and hereditary rule would actually have been forbidden, unless the rulers' children performed best and were better endowed with the attributes that make a person fit to rule compared with every other citizen in the polity. Sociological approach, but rich in historical detail; concentrates on England, France, and "Lotharingia," i.e. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} However, the date of retrieval is often important. Services. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. It is a system in which only a small part of the population represents the government; "certain men distinguished from the rest". Those younger sons who no longer owned enough real estate simply dropped out of the elite and became members of the urban or rural middle classes unless they managed to pursue successful careers as officeholders, lawyers, or soldiers (or sometimes even as merchants), which might give them sufficient wealth and prestige to remain members of the elite. Nevertheless, a new accommodation between the noble quest for prestige and status and the demands of the state was achieved. 2. Most such social aristocracies both legally and factually have been hereditary aristocracies. ." To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Any system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Unfortunately, Solon's reforms were removed by the aristocrats who succeeded him as archon. People who supported ending slavery. “Intrusive” vs. “Obtrusive”: What’s The Difference? very strict in moral or religious matters, often excessively so, talking or tending to talk much or freely, Dictionary.com Unabridged According to him, sailing and health are not things that everyone is qualified to practice by nature. Brief but well-argued survey by scholar who is expert on late medieval and sixteenth-century German nobility. In fact, in northern Italy the social group that can most easily be classified as noble was the urban patriciate. The strict settlement in England, the mayorazgo in Spain, and the Fideikommiss ('entail') in Germany and the Habsburg Monarchy stipulated as a rule that younger sons received only stipends and cash payments or, at best, smaller estates not included in the entail. Oxford, 1965. On the other hand, even in open aristocracies there is a tendency for the upper stratum to become a hereditary group filled mainly by the offspring of aristocratic parents. London and New York, 2001. Details. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. 143. Scott, H. M., ed. The percentage sometimes rose to 25 or more in regions such as Asturias in northern Spain or Mazowia in Poland, which had been marked by prolonged periods of warfare in the high or late Middle Ages; in these areas, freeholders who would have been simple peasants elsewhere often became part of the nobility or had special military privileges. Britain was neither a state nor a nation during the Renaissance period, and the histories of the English, the Wel…, Social inequality was an accepted part of Renaissance society. The dethronement of aristocracy in favour of democracy has proceeded on very similar lines. Classic statement of a once-influential thesis, that the peerage succumbed to economic problems before 1642. scottkirker3's version from 2014-04-13 19:15. edit. Aristocracy, government by a relatively small privileged class or by a minority consisting of those presumed to be best qualified to rule. State and Status: The Rise of the State and Aristocratic Power in Western Europe. [citation needed]. Monarchs and their officeholders may have undermined the position of noble warlords—the quintessential overmighty subjects—and taken a dim view of the protection rackets run by petty squires in remote provinces such as the Auvergne in France or Catalonia in Spain, but at least until the eighteenth century, the monarchical state also gave fresh legitimacy to the status, privileges, and honors enjoyed by nobles. . {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | The Zhou aristocrats present another opportunity for understanding a problem surrounding aristocracies. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, aristocrats exercised considerable power over their subjects and gained enough power to threaten the rule of the monarchy. [5] ." [1] Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012, Traditionally, the disproportionate concentration of wealth, social. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. imaginable degree, area of Noblemen and noblewomen can most easily be defined as members of a social group that enjoyed a hereditary claim to certain privileges and social status, a claim that was sustained by a specific way of life and social practices that were meant to ensure that non-nobles were excluded from the charmed circles of the elite. “Democrat” vs. “Republican”: Where Did The Parties Get Their Names? For example, among millionaires and billionaires living in the United States at the beginning of the 21st century, the percentage born of wealthy parents is notably higher than among American millionaires of the mid-19th century. In the United Kingdom, however, we can observe monarchy, aristocracy and democracy coming together as one. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Rule by one or the few in the rulers’ own interest is tyranny or oligarchy (or timocracy), respectively, and anarchic mob rule is democracy, as Aristotle used that term. Solon immediately freed those who had been imprisoned for debt and recalled those who had been exiled. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Throughout the history of Athens, we can observe one of the major problems with an aristocracy as a form of government. The highest class in certain societies, esp. For the social class, see, http://logeion.uchicago.edu/%E1%BC%80%CF%81%CE%B9%CF%83%CF%84%CE%BF%CE%BA%CF%81%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%AF%CE%B1, "The Roman Republic Compared with Others, Book VI, Section 43", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aristocracy&oldid=984804894, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bengtsson, Erik, et al. From 621 to 508 B.C.E., Athens, one of the largest city-states in Greece, was governed by a series of aristocratic leaders. All mean some form of rule by a small elite. During the reign of King John (the same king depicted in the story of Robin Hood), the aristocracy became increasingly dissatisfied with the king's rule. Other aristocracies have been nonhereditary and recruited from different strata of the population, such as the upper stratum of the Roman Catholic Church, the ruling aristocracy of elective republics and monarchies, the leaders of scientific and artistic organizations, and certain aristocracies of wealth.

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