anatomy of tonsils


B Viswanatha, DO, MBBS, PhD, MS, FACS, FRCS(Glasg) Professor of Otolaryngology (ENT), Sri Venkateshwara ENT Institute, Victoria Hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, India [2] Tonsillar crypts may contain desquamated epithelial debris and cells. ideally named as sinus tonsillaris. Next. A visible white or yellow coating on the tonsils upon examination.

There are four types of tonsils in humans; palatine, pharyngeal, lingual and tubal. Prev

Pharyngeal branch of the maxillary artery, Venous drainage is to the pharyngeal plexus, which communicates with the pterygoid plexus and then drains into the internal jugular and facial veins. The palatine tonsils are dense compact bodies of lymphoid tissue that are located in the lateral wall of the oropharynx, bounded by the palatoglossus muscle anteriorly and the palatopharyngeus and superior constrictor muscles posteriorly and laterally. They are oblong in shape with the long axis vertical. Video courtesy of Ravindhra G Elluru, MD, PhD. Frank H.Netter MD: Atlas of Human Anatomy, 5th Edition, Elsevier Saunders. [1] The medial surface has a pitted appearance; each tonsil has 10-20 pits. Tonsil is lodged in the tonsillar fossa on either side of orophayrnx. The tonsils are part of the lymph system of the body, which is part of the immune system.

The size of the tonsil varies according to the age, individuality, and pathologic status. The tonsils are a set of lymphoid organs facing into the aerodigestive tract, which is known as Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and consists of the adenoid tonsil, two tubal tonsils, two palatine tonsils, and the lingual tonsils. The authors would like to thank their teachers and family members for their encouragement. The tonsils grow until puberty, then begins to shrink in the following years. [1, 2, 3], The lateral surface of the tonsil is covered by fibrous capsule, and it is separated from the oropharynx by loose areolar tissue. In case of recurrent, persistent and enlarged tonsils problems, surgical removal is recommended. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005.

Mitchell: Gray’s Anatomy for Students, 2nd Edition, Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. Anatomy of palatine tonsils: Palatine tonsils are the largest member of the inner waldayer's ring. The lymphoid tissue in this ring provides defense against pathogens. The mouth of the cleft is semilunar, curving parallel to the convex dorsum of the tongue in the parasagittal plane.
London: Hodder Arnold; 2008. Association of Otolaryngologists of India, American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. The trace of this sinus is present in tonsil as supra tonsillar cleft. Corinne Savides Happel, MD, is board-certified in allergies/immunology, with a focus on allergic skin disorders. [2] It is thought to represent a persistent part of the ventral portion of the second pharyngeal pouch. This article will look at the anatomy of the tonsils including the blood supply and innervation, as well as some histological anatomy and embryological development. Waldeyer’s ring is composed of the pharyngeal, tubal, palatine, and lingual tonsils acting as secondary lymphoid tissues. © 2015 WebMD, LLC. Image of tonsil showing plica semilunaris, Image showing the components of Waldayer's ring. Functions of Waldayer rings: These Waldayer's rings consitute an antigen sampling center where the extraneous antigens are caught and sampled stimulating the immune mechanism. 3rd ed.
They are covered by stratified squamous epithelium which invaginates to form a single crypt. Running through the mucosa of each tonsil are pits, called crypts. This fascia extends into the tonsil itself, forming septa, which allow passage of nerves and vessels. Fast Five Quiz: What Do You Know About Dental Health? 6th ed.

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